# NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 PhysicsÂ is the best study material for the students who find difficulty in answering the questions from the textbook. The solutions are created in a comprehensive manner in order to help students grasp the concepts faster. The main aim of preparing the solutions is to make the exam preparation easier for the students. The subject matter experts design the NCERT Solutions in an easy to understand manner to boost the confidence among students to face the board exam without fear. By making use of these solutions, students will be able to know the concepts of importance based on the marks weightage allotted by the CBSE board.

The solutions of all chapters are available here for the perusal of CBSEÂ students. To access these free NCERT Physics Class 12 Solutions PDF Chapters 1-15, follow the links tabulated below. The solutionsÂ provided here are free to view online or to download in a PDF format. To download a PDF of the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics for a specific chapter, click the “Download PDF” button which is provided at the top of each of the chapter pages listed below.

Most of the students don’t understand the concept but try to memorise it for the sake of marks. This does not work all the time. Learning and understanding every concept is necessary when it comes to board exam preparation. So making use of the right reference material for this purpose is very important. Students can answer the textbook questions effortlessly by referring to the NCERT Solutions available at BYJU’S.

### NCERT Solutions Class 12 Physics

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Physics is not only important for the board exams but also to face any competitive exams. The solutions are curated by the faculty to help students grasp more concepts irrespective of their intelligence level. The answers are elaborated in a simple language to assist students as per the CBSE syllabus and exam pattern. The solutions cover all the chapters present in the latest NCERT textbook. Various important concepts are explained in the solutions in order to provide accurate information for the students. Students can also access the NCERT Solutions Class 12 Physics in PDF format along with various study materials in both online and offline mode.

## NCERT Solutions Class 12 Physics Chapter Details and Exercises

### Chapter 1:Â Electric Charges and Fields – Term I

This chapter will help you solve questions based on calculation of forces between two charged particles, which are placed at a distance from one another. You will also learn the reason behind the charge which appears in materials when you rub it against one another for example when you rub a silk cloth with a glass rod. In large scale charges, do you know why quantization of charges are ignored? You will also find questions on determining the total charge and dipole moment of the system with torque and electric field.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields for First Term:

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two-point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 2:Â Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance – Term I

Students will get a brief idea about the electrostatic potential using the solutions at BYJU’S. This chapter contains derivations on topics such as potential energy of the system of charges, energy stored in the capacitor and potential due to electric dipole. Problems based on effective capacitance of capacitors are also solved in a step wise manner as per the CBSE syllabus. These concepts and numericals are answered in the most simplest way in order to help students perform well in the board exams.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 2 Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance for First Term:

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two-point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 2 Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 3:Â Current Electricity – Term I

In this chapter, students will learn the definitions of important terms like conductance, resistance, cell EMF, drift velocity, conductance, resistivity and internal resistance. Students will also get to know the graphing of resistivity for semiconductors, metals and alloys. It will provide a good hold on the conversion of complex circuits into simple series and parallel circuits. The concepts of meter bridge or potentiometer is explained in brief under this chapter. Numerous problems based on these concepts are available for practise at the end of the chapter.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 3 Current Electricity for First Term:

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and nonlinear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge(qualitative ideas only). Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell (qualitative ideas only)

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 3 Current Electricity at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 4:Â Moving Charges and Magnetism – Term I

Students can learn about the various graphs, diagrams, illustrations and examples from our daily life to remember the concepts for a longer duration. Derivations of concepts such as Ampere’s Circuital law and forces between two current carrying wires are also explained clearly. Problems based on these concepts carrying more marks are also present at the end of the chapter which should be practised on a regular basis.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 4 Moving Charges and Magnetism for First Term:

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 4 Moving Charges and Magnetism at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter – Term I

This chapter contains questions on various quantities, how to determine the magnetic field of earth, compass direction and its effects at the poles. Want to know why the magnetic field of earth varies from point to point in space? Refer to the NCERT Solutions available at BYJU’S. You will also learn about the interstellar space and its weak magnetic field. Magnetic moment of solenoid is also another important chapter which is discussed in this chapter.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 5 Magnetism and Matter for First Term:

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 5 Magnetism and Matter at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction – Term I

This chapter explains both about electricity and magnetism together. The main concepts of importance here are the Faraday’s law and the Lenz’s law. The definitions and problems based on these laws are explained in a systematic manner to help students understand the concepts effectively. The direction of induced emf and magnetic field should be considered while solving problems from the exercise questions.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Induction for First Term:

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Induction at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 7: Alternating Current – Term I

You will be able to learn about the AC Voltage applied to a resistor, inductor, capacitor and series LCR circuit. The various diagrams and graphs present in the textbook help you to clearly understand the concept. By regularly learning this chapter, students can answer the complex questions and problems that would appear in the board exams. The important concept here is the transformer. Learning this chapter completely will help students score good grades not only in the board exams but also will clear the competitive exams.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 7 Alternating Current for First Term:

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits. AC generator and transformer.

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 7 Alternating Current at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves – Term II

Electromagnetism is a physical attraction that occurs in particles which are electrically charged. If a capacitor is charged from an external source, there will be a potential difference among two capacitive plates which can be determined along with displacement. Students will also learn about the Kirchhoff’s rules which is of higher marks in the board exams. The RMS value of the conduction current and the similarities between displacement and conduction current is explained here in brief.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 8 ElectromagneticÂ Waves for Second Term:

Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 8 Electromagnetic Waves at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments – Term II

From this chapter, students will learn about the phenomena of refraction, reflection and dispersion of light using the ray picture. By using the laws of reflection and refraction, the image formation is clearly explained in this chapter. The construction and working of optical instruments including the human eye is covered here. Students will study about the natural phenomena due to sunlight which is important from the exam point of view.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 9 Ray Optics and Optical Instruments for Second Term:

Ray Optics: Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.
Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 9 Ray Optics and Optical Instruments at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 10: Wave Optics – Term II

The Huygens’s laws of reflection and refraction is the concept which carries more marks from this chapter. The angular width expression and the Brewster’s Law is explained with suitable examples to provide a clear knowledge among students. Apart from the theory and derivations, students are highly recommended to solve all the problems from the NCERT Textbook. The Doppler Effect is explained in a comprehensive manner to improve the conceptual knowledge among students.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 10 Wave Optics for Second Term:

Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 10 Wave Optics at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter – Term II

This chapter covers important topics like electron emission, photoelectric effect, experimental effect, Einstein’s Photoelectric equation and the wave nature of matter. Numericals should also be given more importance as you will be able to score more marks. Most of the questions from the textbook can be expected to appear in the final exam. By a good hold on this chapter, students will be able to attain remarkable marks and achieve their career goals.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter for Second Term:

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
Experimental study of photoelectric effect
Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 12: Atoms – Term II

Class 12 is an important step in the life of a student as it will help them build their career in the right path. Bohr Model of Hydrogen Atom is the important concept in this chapter. Students will be able to score good marks only if they learn and revise the concepts regularly. Physics is a subject which requires more practise as it contains many problems. The important formulas and steps to be followed in solving the problems should be memorised to score good grades.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 12 Atoms for Second Term:

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 12 Atoms at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 13: Nuclei – Term II

The concepts covered in this chapter are atomic masses and composition of nucleus, size of the nucleus, mass energy and nuclear binding energy, nuclear force, radioactivity and nuclear energy. In Physics, one of the best way to prepare for the board exams is to take notes and make points of the important formulas and definitions. All the concepts are of higher importance as the questions even in the competitive exams will be based on these.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 13 Nuclei for Second Term:

Nuclei Composition and size of nucleus Nuclear force Mass-energy relation, mass defect, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 13 Nuclei at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits – Term II

In this chapter, most of the questions would be based on the n-type semiconductors, carriers and dopants. True or False questions on semiconductors made of carbon, silicon and germanium and the method of determining energy gap is also explained clearly in this chapter. We will be having questions on finding the output frequency of a half wave and full wave rectifier. You will also be able to find the output signal if two amplifiers are connected in series. Additional exercises to find the number of holes and electrons in atoms of indium, silicon and arsenic are also covered here.

Topics Covered in Class 12 Physics Chapter 14 Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits for Second Term:

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell.

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 14 Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits at BYJUâ€™S:

### Chapter 15: Communication Systems

Communication Systems are a collection of systems which are used for connection, transmission, interconnection and communication. These systems are arranged into three types like Media, Technology and Application Area. Transducers, sensors, amplifiers and emitters are some of the examples of modern technology which are the components in the modern devices. To obtain a grip on these concepts, students should refer to the best study material available on the internet today.

Also access the following resources for Class 12 Chapter 15 Communication Systems at BYJUâ€™S:

Learning these chapters would be overwhelming as lots of concepts are present under each chapter. However, studying these chapters using the short techniques present in the solutions, learning would become more interesting. Students can download NCERT Class 12 Books here.

## BYJU’S NCERT Solutions for Physics (Class 12): Primary Features

The Class 12 Physics NCERT Solutions provided by BYJU’S have the following features:

• Detailed answers for all logical reasoning questions.
• Step-by-step solutions for numerical value questions.
• Informative answers to all theoretical questions.
• Verified answers provided by highly qualified subject experts.

Note: CBSEÂ Class 12 Physics students can bookmark this page in their browser to easily access NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics in the future.

## CBSE Marking Scheme 2021-22

For the academic year 2021-22, the CBSE board has divided the entire curriculum into two terms. The purpose behind this is to provide sufficient time for the students to learn the basic concepts with ease. According to the marks weightage, students will be able to analyse the chapters which are of more importance from the exam point of view. By covering half of the syllabus in the first term, students will be able to improve their logical thinking and systematic approach towards complex questions that would arise in the final exams.

#### Term I CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus Course Structure 2021-22

 Unit No. Name of Unit Marks Unitâ€“I Electrostatics 17 Chapterâ€“1: Electric Charges and Fields Chapterâ€“2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance Unit-II Current Electricity Chapterâ€“3: Current Electricity Unitâ€“III Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 18 Chapterâ€“4: Moving Charges and Magnetism Chapterâ€“5: Magnetism and Matter Unitâ€“IV Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents Chapterâ€“6: Electromagnetic Induction Chapterâ€“7: Alternating currents Total 35

#### Term II CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus Course Structure 2021-22

 Unit No. Name of Unit Marks Unitâ€“V Electromagnetic Waves 17 Chapterâ€“8: Electromagnetic Waves Unit-VI Optics Chapterâ€“9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Chapterâ€“10: Wave Optics Unit-VII Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 11 Chapterâ€“11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Unit-VIII Atoms and Nuclei Chapter-12:Â Atoms Chapterâ€“13: Nuclei Unit-IX Electronic Devices 7 Chapterâ€“14: Semiconductor -Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Total 35

## Why BYJU’S NCERT Solutions are Favoured by Toppers?

Many students believe that the NCERT Solutions provided by BYJU’S are the most student-friendly solutions available on the internet.Â  The reliability and accuracy of the solutions provided by us are what makes us the go-to choice for most CBSE students. Completing the NCERT Class 12 Physics SyllabusÂ is easy for the students now using the solutions from BYJU’S. Some key attributes of the NCERT Solutions offered by us are provided below.

• Highly knowledgeable teachers create the solutions

Physics is a subject which has a numerous concepts with applications from our daily life. To understand these concepts, students are highly recommended to refer to a best study material available online. We at BYJU’S curate the solutions by keeping in mind the understanding ability of Class 12 students. So the solutions are reliable and precise completely based on the exam pattern of the CBSE board.

• Gives a variety of problems to practise

When it comes to final exam preparation, practise is the only key to attain remarkable score. For this purpose, we at BYJU’S have provided the chapter wise solutions which can be used by the students in both online and offline mode. The solutions are highly authentic which the students can rely on to prepare well for their board exams.

• Can be accessed anywhere and at any time

Class 12 exam is an important stage in the life of a student. So choosing a perfect study material to satisfy all their needs is very important. When it comes to board exam preparation, we at BYJU’S have created the solutions in order to boost confidence among students to answer complex questions effortlessly. The PDF of solutions can be downloaded for free at BYJU’S which can be used anywhere and at any time while answering the exercise questions from the textbook.

## Other Free Resources Related to NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics

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## Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics

### Why are BYJUâ€™S NCERT Solutions Physics Favoured by Class 12 students?

The correctness of the solutions provided by BYJUâ€™S are the main reason to opt for the solution. The accurate answers provided on the website are in a student-friendly language which makes learning easier.

### How to achieve good marks in Class 12 Physics?.

By referring to BYJUâ€™S NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics, students can achieve high marks in the finals. Practice is an essential task to learn and score well in Physics. The students are required to go through NCERT Solutions thoroughly before the final exams to score well and intensify their question-solving abilities.

### How many Chapters are there in NCERT Physics Class 12?

There are 15 Chapters in Class 12 Physics NCERT Textbook. Viz,
Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields
Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Chapter 3: Current Electricity
Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter
Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction
Chapter 7: Alternating Current
Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves
Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Chapter 10: Wave Optics
Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Chapter 12: Atoms
Chapter 13: Nuclei
Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Chapter 15: Communication Systems

### Where can I download Chapter-Wise NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics?

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics can be downloaded and viewed from the BYJUâ€™S website in free PDF. At BYJUâ€™S, students can avail the solutions both online as well as download and save them for offline reference. The solutions provided in this website have been solved very accurately by BYJUâ€™S experts in Physics.

### How are NCERT Solutions for Class 12 helpful for CBSE Students?

NCERT Solutions are primarily designed for CBSE students and are based on the latest syllabus prescribed by the CBSE Board. Most of the questions asked in the exams are from these textbooks, which in turn, help to know the marking scheme and exam pattern.